‘One must pay tribute to those nations whose systems permit the largest possible number of the citizens to take part in public life in a climate of genuine freedom.’32 1916 As with any ethical obligation, the participation of all in realizing the common good calls for a continually renewed conversion of the social partners. Fraud and other subterfuges, by which some people evade the constraints of the law and the prescriptions of societal obligation, must be firmly condemned because they are


incompatible with the requirements ofjustice. Much care should

be taken to promote institutions that improve the conditions of human life.33 1917 It is incumbent on those who exercise authority to streng then the values that inspire the confidence of the members of the group and encourage them to put themselves at the service of others. Participation begins with education and culture. ‘One is entitled to think that the future of humanity is in the hands of those who are capable of providing the generations to come with


reasons for life and optimism.’34


1918 ‘There is no authority except from God, and those authorities that exist have been instituted by God’ (Rom 13:1).

1919 Every human community needs an authority in order to endure and develop.

1920 ‘The political community and public authority are based on human nature and therefore. . . belong to an order established by God’ (CS 74 §~).

1921 Authority is exercised legitimately jf it is committed to the common good of society. To attain this it must employ morally acceptable means.

1922 The diversity of political regimes is legitimate, provided they contribute to the good of the community.

1923 Political authority must be exercised within the limits of the moral order and must guarantee the conditions for the exercise offreedom.

1924 The common good comprises ‘the sum total of social conditions which allow people, either as groups or as individuals, to reach theirfulfilment more fully and more easily’ (GS 26 §i).