1890 There is a certain resemblance between the unity of the divine persons and the fraternity that men ought to establish among themselves,

1891 The human person needs life in society in order to develop in accordance with his nature. Certain societies, such as the family and the state, correspond more directly to the nature of man.

1892 ‘The human person. . . is and ought to be the principle, the subject, and the object of every social organization’ (CS 25 §i).

1893 Widespread participation in voluntary associations and institutions is to be encouraged.

1894 In accordance with the principle of subsidiarity, neither the state nor any larger society should substitute itselffor the initiative and responsibility of individuals and intermediary bodies.

1895 Society ought to promote the exercise of virtue, not obstruct it. It should be animated by a just hierarchy of values.

1896 Where sin has perverted the social climate, it is necessary to callfor the conversion of hearts and appeal to the grace of God. Charity urges just reforms. There is no solution to the social question apart from the Gospel (cf. CA 3, s).

Article 2




1897 ‘Human society can be neither well-ordered nor prosperous


unless it has some people invested with legitimate authority to

preserve its institutions and to devote themselves as far as is necessary to work and care for the good of all.”5 By ‘authority’ one means the quality by virtue of which persons or institutions make laws and give orders to men, and expect obedience from them. 1898 Every human community needs an authority to govern it.’6 The foundation of such authority lies in human nature. It is necessary for the unity of the state. Its role is to ensure as far as possible the common good of the society.