The vices. They are pride, avarice, envy, wrath, lust, gluttony, and sloth or acedia. 1867 The catechetical tradition also recalls that there are ‘sins that


cry to heaven’: the blood of Abel,’39 the sin of the Sodomites,’4° the

cry of the people oppressed in Egypt,’4’ the cry of the foreigner, the widow and the orphan,’42 injustice to the wage earner.’43
1868 Sin is a personal act. Moreover, we have a responsibility for the sins committed by others when we co-operate in them:


— by participating directly and voluntarily in them;

by ordering, advising, praising, or approving them;

by not disclosing or not hindering them when we have an obli

gation to do so;

by protecting evil-doers.

1869 Thus sin makes men accomplices of one another and causes concupiscence, violence and injustice to reign among them. Sins give rise to social situations and institutions that are contrary to the


divine goodness. ‘Structures of sin’ are the expression and effect of


personal sins. They lead their victims to do evil in their turn. In an

analogous sense, they constitute a ‘social sin’.’44


1870 ‘God has consigned all men to disobedience, that he may have mercy upon all’ (Rom 11:32).

1871 Sin is an utterance, a deed, or a desire contrary to the eternal law (St Augustine, Contra Faustum 22: PL 42, 418). It is an offence against God. It rises up against God in a disobedience contrary to the obedience of Christ.

1872 Sin is an act contrary to reason. It wounds man’s nature and injures human solidarity.

1873 The root of all sins lies in man’s heart. The kinds and the gravity of sins are determined principally by their objects.

1874 To choose deliberately — that is, both knowing it and willing it — something gravely contrary to the divine law and to the ultimate end of man is to commit a mortal sin. This destroys in us the charity without which eternal beatitude is impossible. Unrepented, it brings eternal death.